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The Difference Between Study Skills, Study Techniques and Study Methods
When considering learning and studying, one should always keep in mind that there are three aspects that are important:
Any student’s ability to study successfully depends to a large extent on his basic study skills, i.e. his ability to concentrate, to perceive correctly and precisely, as well as the ability to remember what has been perceived.
Study skills must not be confused with study techniques and study methods. The difference between these can be explained using the game of football as an example. To be a soccer player, a person must FIRST master the basic soccer skills, e.g. passing, heading and dribbling the ball. Only then can he be taught techniques and methods. Similarly, to be a good student, a learner must FIRST master basic study skills.
Mnemonics training is often done without this sequential way of learning in mind. A mnemonic is a specific reconstruction of target content that aims to tie new information more closely to the learner’s existing knowledge base and therefore facilitate retrieval. There are a variety of mnemonic techniques, including keywords, pegwords, acronyms, loci methods, spelling mnemonics, phonetic mnemonics, number-sound mnemonics, and Japanese “Yodai” methods. An example of an acronym is remembering the word HOMES to remember the names of the Great Lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior. The purpose of number-sound mnemonics is to recall sequences of numbers, such as telephone numbers, addresses, cabinet combinations or historical dates. To use them, students must first learn the number-sound relationships: 0=s; 1=t; 2=n; 3=m; 4=r; 5=1; 6=sh, ch or soft g, 7=k, hard c or hard g; 8=f or v; and 9=p. To remember the date 1439, for example, the student uses the associated consonant sounds, t, r, m, and p, and will insert vowels to create one or more meaningful words. In this case, the word “tramp” can be used.
However, there are at least two problems with improving memory using mnemonic instruction. The first problem is – as already mentioned – that it overlooks the sequential way of learning. Mnemonics teaching is very much teaching memory techniques that should only be taught AFTER the memory skill has been learned. It can be compared to a person who is taught football tactics such as the “wall pass” while not yet sufficiently mastering the ability to pass the ball. As it says in ‘Knowabout Soccer’, “No matter how good your passing technique is, if the quality of your passing is poor, your technique will not be effective.” The second problem is that by teaching only memory crutches, the result is, as stated by Scruggs and Mastropieri, “on more complex applications, attempts at generalization [are] less successful.” If the memory skill is taught, however, the student can apply it to any situation.
There are three learning techniques that can be used to make studying more successful.
1. Association: This is probably the most important and effective of all the learning techniques, of which mnemonics is probably the most used association technique.
2. Thinking in pictures: You are able to remember much better what you have seen in the mind’s eye than what you have thought in abstract terms. Therefore, you should always consciously try to think in pictures.
3. Reduce the frequency of brain waves: The brain normally vibrates at 20 cycles per second or higher. Dr. Georgi Lozanov was probably the first to discover that if the frequency of the brain waves is reduced, more effective examination becomes possible. He found that playing slow baroque music could reduce the frequency of brain waves. José Silva was probably the first to discover a method to reduce the frequency of brain waves at will.
Most students have the bad habit of studying only the day before a test or exam. There are two serious disadvantages associated with this research method:
1. There is never any regular study skills training.
2. It has been shown that within 24 hours – on average – you forget up to 80% of what you have learned. However, if the study material is reviewed after 24 hours, it takes 7 days before 80% is forgotten again, and if another review is made at this time, it takes 30 days to forget 80% again.
Research has shown that if the correct pattern or review of studied material is followed, memory consolidation is significantly improved and the total time spent learning is dramatically reduced. The following pattern of initial investigation and subsequent review is sure to yield excellent results:
1. Set up a schedule that is divided into study periods of 30 minutes each. On the first day when this new schedule will be implemented, take the first study period to learn some study material thoroughly. It should be short enough that it can be absorbed in only about 15 minutes. When the full study program is in operation, as you will quickly discover as you read on, you only have about 15 minutes in each 30 minute study period to study and absorb new material. The rest of the time is spent reviewing previously learned material. The work must be summarized and studied thoroughly in these 30 minutes. Take a 5-minute break at the end of the study period.
2. Review after 5 minutes. Use 3 minutes of the next study period to review the study material from the previous study period before new material is again summarized and studied thoroughly.
3. Review after 24 hours. Spend 3 minutes reviewing the material studied the previous day. Then spend 3 minutes reviewing the work studied 5 minutes ago before re-studying and summarizing new material.
4. Review after 7 days. Spend 3 minutes reviewing the work reviewed 7 days ago before reviewing the work studied the day before and then reviewing the work studied 5 minutes ago.
5. Review after 30 days. Spend 3 minutes reviewing work that was already reported 30 days ago, before reviewing work from 7 days ago, then that from 24 hours ago, then that from 5 minutes ago.
6. Review after 120 days. Spend 3 minutes reviewing the work studied 120 days ago, then the work studied 30 days ago, before reviewing the work 7 days ago, then that of 24 hours ago, then that of 5 minutes since.
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