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The History of Video Conferencing – Moving Ahead at the Speed of Video
No new technology develops smoothly, and video conferencing had more than its share of bumps along the way before becoming the widely used communication base it is today. The history of video conferencing in its earliest form dates back to the 1960s, when AT&T introduced the Picturephone at the New York World’s Fair. Although considered a fascinating curiosity, it never became popular and was too expensive to be practical for most consumers when it was offered for $160 per month in 1970. Commercial use of true videoconferencing was first realized with Ericsson’s demonstration of the first transatlantic sea. LME video phone calls. Soon, other companies began to refine video conferencing technologies, including advances such as Network Video Protocol (NVP) in 1976 and Packet Video Protocol (PVP) in 1981. However, none of these were taken into commercial use and remained in the laboratory or in private enterprise use. In 1976, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone established video conferencing (VC) between Tokyo and Osaka for corporate use. IBM Japan followed suit in 1982 by establishing VC running at 48000bps to connect with already established internal IBM video conferencing connections in the US so they could hold weekly meetings. 1980s Introduces Commercial Video Conferencing In 1982, Compression Labs introduces their $250,000 VC system to the world with $1,000-an-hour lines. The system was huge and used huge resources that could trip 15 amp circuit breakers. However, it was the only working VC system available until PictureTel’s VC came on the market in 1986 with their significantly cheaper $80,000 system with $100 per hour lines. In the time between these two commercially available systems, other video conferencing systems were developed which were never commercially available. The history of video conferencing is not complete without mentioning these systems, which were either prototypes or systems developed specifically for internal use by a number of companies or organizations, including the military. Around 1984, Datapoint was using the Datapoint MINX system at their campus in Texas and had supplied the system to the military. In the late 1980s, Mitsubishi started selling a still image phone that was basically a flop in the market. They dropped the line two years after introducing it. In 1991, the first PC-based video conferencing system was introduced by IBM – PicTel. It was a black and white system that used what was then an incredibly cheap $30 an hour for the lines, while the system itself was $20,000. By June of that year, DARTnet had successfully connected a transcontinental IP network of over a dozen research sites in the US and UK using T1 trunks. Today, DARTnet has evolved into the CAIRN system, which connects dozens of institutions. CU-SeeMe revolutionizes video conferencing One of the most famous systems in the history of video conferencing was CU-SeeMe developed for the MacIntosh system in 1992. Although the first version did not have sound, it was the best video system developed for it. point. By 1993, the MAC program had multipoint capability, and by 1994, CU-SeeMe MAC was true video conferencing with audio. Recognizing the limitations of MAC compatibility in a Windows world, the developers worked diligently to roll out April 1994 CU-SeeME for Windows (no audio), closely followed by the audio version, CU-SeeMe v0.66b1 for Windows in August 1995. In 1992, rolled out AT&T their own $1,500 video phone for the home market. It was a borderline success. In the same year, the world’s first MBone audio/video broadcast took place, and in July INRIA’s video conference system was introduced. This is the year that the first real explosion in video conferencing for businesses around the globe led to the standards developed by the ITU. International Telecommunications Union develops coding standards The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) began developing video conferencing coding standards in 1996 when it established the H.263 standard to reduce transmission bandwidth for low bit rate communications. Other standards were developed, including H.323 for packet-based multimedia communications. These are a number of other telecommunications standards that were revised and updated in 1998. In 1999, the MPEG-4 standard was developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group as an ISO standard for multimedia content. In 1993, VocalChat Novell IPX network introduced their video conferencing system, but it was doomed from the start and didn’t last. Microsoft finally got on the video conferencing bandwagon with NetMeeting, a descendant of PictureTel’s Liveshare Plus, in August 1996 (although it didn’t have video in that release). By December of that year, Microsoft NetMeeting v2.0b2 with video had been released. That same month, VocalTec’s Internet Phone v4.0 for Windows was introduced. VRVS connects global research centers. The VRVS (Virtual Room Videoconferencing System) project at Caltech-CERN started in July 1997. They developed VRVS specifically to provide videoconferencing for Large Hadron Collider Project researchers and high-energy and nuclear scientists. Physics Community in the USA and Europe. It has been so successful that seed money has been allocated for phase two, CalREN-2, to improve and expand the already existing VRVS system to extend it to include geneticists, doctors and a wide range of other scientists in video conferencing networks across world. The Cornell University development team released CU-SeeMe v1.0 in 1998. This color video version was compatible with both Windows and MacIntosh and a major step forward in PC video conferencing. In May of the same year, the team moved on to other projects. In February 1999, the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) was launched by MMUSIC. The platform showed some advantages over H.323, which the user appreciated and soon made it almost as popular. 1999 was a very busy year with the release of NetMeeting v3.0b, followed quickly by version three of the ITU standard H.323. Then came the release of iVisit v2.3b5 for both Windows and Mac, followed by Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP), version 1. In December, Microsoft released a service pack for NetMeeting v3.01 (4.4.3388) and an ISO standard MPEG-4 version two was released. Finally, PSInet was the first company to launch H.323 automated multipoint services. As we said, 1999 was a very busy year. SIP entered version 1.30 in November 2000, the same year standard H.323 hit version 4, and Samsung released its MPEG-4 streaming 3G video mobile phone, the first of its kind. It was a hit, especially in Japan. Quite predictably, Microsoft NetMeeting had to release another service pack for version 3.01. In 2001, Windows XP messenger announced that it would now support the Session Initiation Protocol. This was the same year the world’s first transatlantic telesurgery took place using video conferencing. In this case, video conferencing enabled a surgeon in the United States to use a robot overseas to perform gallbladder surgery on a patient. It was one of the most compelling non-commercial uses in the history of video conferencing and brought the technology to the medical profession and the general public. In October 2001, television reporters began using a portable satellite and a videophone to broadcast live from Afghanistan during the war. It was the first use of video conferencing technology to converse live by video with a person in a war zone, again bringing video conferencing to the forefront of people’s imaginations. The Joint Video Team was founded in December 2001 and completed fundamental research leading to ITU-T H.264 in December 2002. This protocol standardized video compression technology for both MPEG-4 and ITU-T over a wide range of applications, making it more versatile than its predecessors. In March 2003, the new technology was ready for launch in industry. New Uses of Video Conferencing Technologies 2003 also saw an increase in the use of video conferencing for off-campus classrooms. Interactive classrooms became more popular as the quality of streaming video increased and latency decreased. Companies like VBrick provided various MPEG-4 systems to colleges across the country. Desktop video conferencing is also increasing and gaining popularity. Newer companies to the market are now refining the details of performance beyond the nuts and bolts of the transmission. In April 2004, Applied Global Technologies developed a voice-activated camera for use in video conferencing that tracks the voice of different speakers to focus on the speaker during a conference call. In March 2004, Linux announced the release of GnomeMeeting, an H.323-compliant, free video conferencing platform that is NetMeeting compatible. With the constant advancements in video conferencing systems, it seems obvious that the technology will continue to evolve and become an integral part of business and personal life. As new advances are made and systems become more affordable, keep in mind that choices are still determined by network type, system requirements, and your particular conferencing needs. This article on “The History of Video Conferencing” reprinted with permission.
Copyright © 2004 Evaluseek Publishing.
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