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History of Travel & Tourism
India and Mesopotamia, 2000 BC
Trade travel has been an important feature since the beginning of civilization. The port of Lothal was an important trading center between the Indus Valley and Sumerian civilizations.
After 600 BC
The earliest forms of leisure tourism can be traced back to the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. In Babylon a museum of historical relics was open to the public. The Egyptians held many religious festivals, attracting devout people and large crowds who flocked to the city to see the famous works of art and buildings.
In India, as elsewhere, kings traveled to build empires. A Brahmin and his commoners traveled for religious purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and commoners flocked to Sarnath and Slavasti and were greeted by the inexplicable smile of the enlightened one, the Buddha.
500 BC, Greek civilization
Tourists in Greece visited the place of healing gods. The Greeks also enjoyed religious festivals which increasingly pursued joy, especially sports. Athens became an important destination for travelers visiting major attractions such as the Parthenon. rice field. Ryokans were established in large towns and seaports to meet the needs of travelers. It was the primary entertainment provided by prostitutes.
This period also saw the birth of travelogues. Herodotus is the world’s first travel his writer. Guidebooks also appeared in his fourth century, covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta, and Troy. In this era, advertisements for guidance signs to inns are also known.
With no foreign borders between Britain and Syria and safe seas from pirates patrolled by Rome, favorable conditions for travel arrived. Together, they have fueled the growth of travel. The Romans traveled through Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD, trips to holy sites also became very popular. The Romans introduced guidebooks (itineraries), listing hotels with symbols to identify their quality.
The second house was built by the rich near Rome and was used mainly during the spring social season. The most fashionable resorts are found around the Gulf of Naples. Naples attracted retirees and intellectuals, Coumae attracted fashionable people, and Baye attracted downmarket tourists and became famous for its rowdy, drunkenness and all-nighters.
Travel and tourism did not attain equal status until modern times.
in the Middle Ages
As people traveled for business and a sense of duty, travel became difficult and dangerous.
Adventurers sought fame and fortune through their travels. Europeans sought to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes, and in this way discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Wandering musicians and bards made a living by performing while traveling. Missionaries, saints and others traveled to spread the sacred word.
Leisure travel in India was introduced by the Mughal Empire. Mughal kings built gorgeous palaces and enchanting gardens in natural and scenic locations (for example, Jehangir traveled to Kashmir, attracted by its beauty.
Empire-building and pilgrimage trips were regular functions.
From the early 17th century, new forms of tourism developed as a direct result of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth Her I, young men seeking positions at court were encouraged to travel to the continent to complete their education. Later, it became customary for a gentleman’s education to be completed by a “grand tour”, accompanied by a private tutor and lasting over three years. , or traveled to enjoy the life and culture of Florence. By the end of the 18th century, the custom was institutionalized among the gentlemen. Recreational travel gradually replaced educational travel. With the advent of the Napoleonic Wars, travel was banned for about 30 years and the custom of the Grand Tour declined.
Development of hot springs
Spas became popular in England in the 17th century and a little later in continental Europe as awareness of the therapeutic benefits of mineral waters grew. get treatment It quickly acquired the nature of a status symbol at the spa. The resort has changed character as fun has become the motive for visiting. They became an important center of social life in high society.
In the 19th century they were gradually replaced by seaside resorts.
A resort of sun, sand and sea
Seawater has become associated with health benefits. Therefore, the first visitors drank it and did not bathe. By the early 18th century, small fishing resorts had sprung up in England, attracting travelers to drink and bathe in the sea. As inland spas became overcrowded, new seaside resorts became popular. The introduction of steamboat services in the 19th century introduced more resorts to the circuit.Seaside resorts gradually became social gathering places
The Role of the Industrial Revolution in Promoting Western Travel
Rapid urbanization due to industrialization has resulted in mass immigration to cities. These people were invited to travel to escape the environment to places of natural beauty. Often they came from a routine change from a physically and mentally stressful job to a leisurely pace in the countryside.
19th Century Journey Highlights
· The advent of railroads encouraged business travel first, and later leisure travel. Gradually, special trains were chartered exclusively for leisure travel to destinations.
・Package tours organized by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.
· European countries made frequent trips to their colonies to purchase raw materials and sell finished products.
· The invention of photography served as a status enhancement tool and encouraged international travel.
· Formation of the first hotel chain. Pioneered by the railroad company that established the great Rail Terminal Hotel.
· Seaside resorts began to develop different images: day-trippers, elite, gambling.
・Other destinations – ski resorts, hill stations, climbing spots, etc.
· The development of steamship technology facilitated travel between North America and Europe.
The Suez Canal opened a direct sea route to India and the Far East.
· A cult of guidebooks followed the development of photography.
20th century tourism
World War I experienced the country firsthand and aroused curiosity about international travel for the first time among the less wealthy sectors. Mass migration to the United States meant many transatlantic movements. Private car travel began to drive domestic travel in Europe and the West. Seaside resorts have become annual family destinations in England and have grown in popularity in other countries of the West. Hotels have surged in these destinations.
The birth of air travel and its aftermath
The war sparked an interest in traveling abroad. This interest has taken the form of mass tourism by the aviation industry. The surplus of aircraft and the growth of commercial airlines helped expand air travel. Airplanes became comfortable, faster and steadily cheaper for international travel.In 1958 the Boeing 707 jet was introduced, ushering in an era of air travel for the masses. The start of charter flights boosted the package tour market and established organized mass tourism. The Boeing 747, his 400-passenger plane, greatly reduced travel costs. The seaside resorts of the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Caribbean were the first hotspots of mass tourism.
A corresponding growth in the hotel industry has led to the establishment of worldwide chains. Tourism started to diversify as people started flocking to different destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India have been visited by large numbers of tourists fascinated by Hare Krishna’s movement and Transcendental Meditation. The beginning of a significant amount of private travel occurred only in the 80s. Air travel has also led to continued growth in business travel, especially with the emergence of multinational corporations.
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