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Kathakali The Classical Dance Form Of Kerala
Kathakali, the classical dance form of Kerala, originated in Kerala 400 years ago. Kathakali is an art form where music, dance and drama are incredibly synchronized, which in Kathakali constitute three arts, abhinayam or acting, nrityam or dancing, and geetham or singing.
In Kathakali there is a perfect combination of five elements of art. Expression (Natyam), Dance (Nritham), Enactment (Nrithyam), Singing/vocal attribute (Geetha), Instrumental attribute (Vadyam).
In Kathakali, the story is achieved solely by hand movements called mudras and by facial expressions called rasas and bodily movements. The expressions are developed from Natyashastra. There are 24 basic mudras, each in turn can be classified into ‘Samaana mudras that is a mudra representing two objects or misra mudras which both hands are used to display these mudras.
Sringaram, which is amour, Hasyam, which is humor, bhayanakam, which is fear, Karunam, which is desolation, Roudram, which is anger, Veeram, which is bravery, Beebhatsam, which is loathing, Adbhutam, which is wonder, and the last is Shantam, these are the nine facial expressions of a Kathakali artist called Navarasams.
The performer does not sing or speak in Kathakali, Manipravalam is the language of the songs used in Kathakali. Although most of the songs are set in ragas based on the Carnatic music, there is a distinct style of interpretation with plain notes which is known as the Sopanam style. In Kathakali four musical instruments are used, these are Chenda, Maddalam, Chengila and elathalam. The music created using these instruments called melam. Usually there are two singers to sing the music. With the two singers, one uses the chengila to create a rhythmically fixed beat.
The most famous stories in Kathakali are Nalacharitham (story of Mahabharatha), Duryodhana vadham (concentrate of Mahabharatha war), Kalyanasougandhikam (story of Bhima fetching flowers for his wife Panchali), Keechakavadham, Kiratham (Arjuna and Lord Shiva’s fight, from the Mahabharata), Karnashapatham, Nizhalkuthu.
In Kathakali, the vesha which is costume is mainly classified into four, Pacha (Sathwika, the hero), Kathi (villain), Minukku (for female characters) and Thaadi. These are the four costumes used in Kathakali.
Pacha- The makeup known as pacha is assigned to the hero of the story, Examples of these characters are Dhirodatta, noble kings like Nala, Yudhishtra, Rukmangada, Arjuna and Bhimsena. All characters below pacha wear Kiritas But when it comes to characters like Vishnu, Krishna or Rama, Kiritas changed to Mudi so this costume is also referred to as mudi. The facial make-up is the same in both mudi and pacha, except that Krishna wears a dark jacket rather than the purple or red jacket of Pacha.
Kathi- The costume is similar to pacha except that in the makeup a knife shaped pattern is drawn on each cheek in red pigment and a small ball is attached to the tip of the nose and also in the forehead. This costume is usually for villain characters like Ravana, kamsa and Duryodhana. Apart from pacha characters kathi characters make fearful sounds when the emotions are expressed.
Thadi-Thamoguna who is evil is represented in this costume there are three types of thadis red black and white.. The red Thadi is usually given to extremely wicked characters like Rakshasas or the men like Dussasana. Destructive evil force is represented in red thadi costume. The crown of the white thadi is known as Vattamudi, a formal military hat-like headdress and a white beard, the example of white thadi character is Hanuman (a prominent character in Hindu mythology). The black thadi costume is given to such a character. like kali in Nalacharitha, like red thadi this also represents evil. The make-up is the same as the red thadi except the beard alone in black colour.
Kari-The kari is pure black costume, the make-up on the face of the jackets and the skits are all in black. The headgear is the same. the costume is used to characterize people both women and men. They also make a howling sound.
Chutti- The white make-up plays an important role in Kathakali make-up. In older times, chutti was made with a mixture of rice paste and lime. But now the bottom is laid with paste and the balance made of paper. The chutti is used to increase the outline of the face so that the facial expression can be clearly marked.
The Minukku Makeup is usually used for female characters. The costume and make-up are completely different from other characters. In the Minukku costume, the face is painted with yellowish orange color. Women, sages and Brahmins appear in ‘Minukku’. Other characters appearing in Minukku are carters and messengers.
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